The Oklahoma state flag honors more than 60 groups of Native Americans and their ancestors. The blue field comes from a flag carried by Choctaw soldiers during the Civil War. The center shield is the battle shield of an Osage warrior. It is made of buffalo hide and decorated with eagle feathers. Two symbols of peace lie across the shield: One is the calumet, or peace pipe, and the other is an olive branch. Crosses on the shield are Native American signs for stars, representing high ideals.